Home        Site Map

x

of Clinical Research, Scientific Studies, 

and Professional Publications

Supporting Optometric Vision Therapy

American Optometric Association's position paper on the effectiveness of vision therapy, click here.

Amblyopia     Strabismus     Convergence     Accommodation     Oculomotor      

Perception      Reading and Learning     General References

Amblyopia  (Lazy Eye)     

Amos J. Refractive Amblyopia. In: Amos J ed. Diagnosis and management in vision care. Boston: Butterworths, 1987:372.

American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline: Care of the patient with amblyopia. St. Louis: American Optometric Association, 1994:22-3.  

Barber A. Amblyopia literature review. In: Barber A, ed. Vision therapist: amblyopia. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1994;34(4):1-16.

Birnbaum MH, Koslowe K, Sanet R. Success in amblyopic therapy as a function of age. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1977;54:268-275.  

Bedell HE, Flom MC. Monocular spatial distortion in strabismic amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;20:26-8.

Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182. 

Burian HM. Treatment of functional amblyopia. Sight-saving Rev 1971;41(2):69-81.

Ciuffreda KJ. Visual system plasticity in human amblyopia. In: Hilfer SR, Sheffield JB, eds. Cell and developmental biology of the eye: development of order in the visual system. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986:211-44. 

Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Abnormal saccadic substitution during small amplitude pursuit tracking in amblyopic eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979;18:506-16.  

Ciuffreda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Different rates of functional recovery of eye movements during orthoptics treatment in an adult amblyope. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979; 18:213-9.

Ciuffreda KJ, Levi DM, Selenow A. Amblyopia: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butterwortb-Heinemann, 1991:64.

CohenAH. Monocular fixation in a binocular field. J Am Opt Assoc 1981,Oct;52(10):801-06.

Cook DL. Optometric alternative to amblyopia occlusion therapy. J Optom Vis Dev 1995,June;26(2):71-75.

Dell W. The epidemiology of amblyopia. Probl Optom 1991;3:195-207.

Eibschitz N, Friedman Z, Neuman E. Comparative results of amblyopia treatment. Metab Ophthalmol 1978;2:111-2. 

Eiden SB. Vision therapy helps adult amblyopes. Rev Optom 1982,Sept;119(9):62.

Flax N. Common sense management of amblyopia: Amblyopes are people, not eyes. J Optom Vis Dev 1995,June;26(2)53-56.

Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW, eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990;219.

Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1963;210-212

Flom MC, Kirschen DG, Bedell HE. Control of unsteady, eccentric fixation in amblyopic eyes by auditory feedback of eye position. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:1371-91.

Flom MC, Neumaier RW. Prevalence of amblyopia. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1966;73:732-51.

Flom MC, Wick B. A model for treating binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990:257.

Flynn JT, Cassady JC. Current trends in amblyopia therapy. Ophthalmology 1978;85:428-450.

Francois J, James M. Comparative study of amblyopic treatment. Am Orthopt J 1955;5:61-4.

Garcia RP, Richman JE. Stereopsis in an amblyopic small angle esotrope. J Am Optom Assoc 1985;56:400-404. 

Garzia, RP. The efficacy of visual training in amblyopia: A literature review. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:393-404. 

Getz DG. Strabismus and amblyopia. rev. ed, Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990.

Girard LJ, Fletcher MC, Tomlinson E, et al. Results of pleoptic treatment of suppression amblyopia. Am Orthopt J 1962;12:12-31.

Gortz H. The corrective treatment of amblyopia with eccentric fixation. Am J OphthalmoI 1960;49:1315-21.

Greenwald I. Brock: A binocular approach to amblyopia therapy. J Optom Vis Dev 1995, June; 26(2):62-67.

Gregersen E. Occlusion treatment of squint amblyopia in young adults. Acta Ophthalmol 1966;44:166-8. 

Haldi B, Mitchelson JE. Amblyopia therapy: Expected results from standard techniques. Am Orthopt J 1981;31:19-28.

Ingram RM, Rogers S, Walker C. Occlusion and amblyopia. Br Orthopt J 1977;34:11-22. 

Jablonski M, Tomlinson E. A new look at pleoptics. Ophthalmology 1979;86:2112-4.

Kupfer C. Treatment of amblyopia ex anopsia in adults. Am J Ophthalmol 1957;43:918-22. 

Lithander J, Sjöstrand J. Anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia in the age group 2 years and above: A prospective study of the results of treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 1991; 75:111-6.

London R, Silver JL. Diagnosis of amblyopia: Emphasis on nonacuity factors. Problems in Optometry 1991;3:258-275.

Mayweg S, Massie HH. A preliminary report of the more recent methods of treatment of amblyopia, especially when associated with eccentric fixation in cases of strabismus. Br. J Ophthalmol 1958;42:257-69.

Nawratzki I. Treatment of amblyopia. Ir J Med Sci 1972; 8:1475-9. 

Oliver M, Neumann R, Chaimovitch Y, et al. Compliance and results of treatment for amblyopia in children more than 8 years old. Am J Ophthalmol 1986; 102:340-5.

Peli E. Normal stereo acuity despite anisometropic amblyopia. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54:919-921.

Porter EE. Treatment of amblyopia. Am Orthopt J 1962; 12:157.61.

Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide.  New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.

Press LJ. Amblyopia. J Optom Vis Dev 1988;19:2-15.

Press LJ. Amblyopia: A Microcosm of Visual Disorders.  In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.  

Press LJ. Amblyopia and strabismus. In: Press L, Moore B, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993:265-73. 

Press LJ. Topical review of the literature: amblyopia. J Optom Vis Devel 1988;19:2-15.  

Reinecke RD, Simons K. A new stereoscopic test for amblyopia screening. Am J Ophthalmol 1974;78:714.

Ross E, Murray AL, Stead S. Prevalence of amblyopia in grade 1 school children in Saskatoon. Can J Public Health 1977; 68:491-3.

Rutstein RP, Fuhr PS. Efficacy and stability of amblyopia therapy. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(10):747-54.

Saulles H. Treatment of refractive amblyopia in adults. J Am Optom Assoc 1987; 58(12):959-60.

Schapero M. Amblyopia. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1971.

Schor C. A directional impairment of eye movement control in strabismus amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1975; 15:692-7. 

Schor CM, Flom MC. Eye position control and visual acuity in strabismus amblyopia. In: Lennerstrand G, Bach-y-Rita P, Collins CC, et al, eds. Basic mechanisms of ocular motility and their clinical manifestations. New York: Pergamon Press, 1975. 

Selenow A, Ciufredda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:132-40.  

Simmers AJ, Gray LS, McGraw PV, Winn B. Functional visual loss in amblyopia and the effect of occlusion therapy. Inv Ophthal Vis Sci 1999; 40(12):2859-71.

Spitzer NC. Development, regeneration, and plasticity. In: Cohen MJ, Strumwasser F, eds. Comparative neurobiology: modes of communication in the nervous system. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985. 

Sullivan M. Results in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia. Orthopt J 1975:37-42.

Von Noorden GK Occlusion therapy in amblyopia with eccentric fixation, Arch Ophthalmol 1965;73:776-81.

Von Noorden GK, Attiah F. Alternating penalization in the prevention of amblyopia recurrence. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;102:473-5.

Von Noorden GK. Mackensen G. Pursuit movements of normal and amblyoptic eyes - an electromyographic study. II. Pursuit movements of amblyopic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 1962;53:477-87.  

Watson PG, Sanac AS, Pickering MS. A comparison of various methods of treatment of amblyopia: A block study. Tr Ophthalmol Soc UK 1985; 104:319-28.

Wick B, Wingard M, Cotter S, et al. Anisometropic amblyopia: Is the patient ever too old to treat? Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(11):866-78.

Return to Top

 

Strabismus  (Crossed, turned, or wandering eyes)

Altizer LB. The non-surgical treatment of exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1972;22:71-6.  

Bair DR. Symposium: Intermittent exotropia, diagnosis and incidence. Am Orthoptic J 1952;2:12-17.

Birnbaum MH. Gross motor control and postural characteristics of strabismic patients.  J Am Optom Assoc 1974;45:686-96.

Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182.

Caloroso EE. A sequential strategy for achieving functional binocularity in strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1998;59:378-87.

Caloroso EE, Rouse MW. Clinical management of strabismus. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993. 

Chryssanthou G. Orthoptic management of intermittent exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1974;24:69-72.  

Coffey B, Wick B, Cotter S, et al. Treatment options in intermittent exotropia: A critical appraisal. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(5):386-404.

Colorado Vision Consultants. Manual of esotropia therapy. Boulder: Colorado Vision Consultants, 1985.

Cooper EL, Leyman IA. The management of intermittent exotropia: A comparison of the results of surgical and non-surgical treatment. Am Orthoptic J 1977;27:61-67.

Cooper J. Intermittent exotropia of the divergence excess type. J Am Optom Assoc 1977;48:1261-1273.

Cooper J, Medow N. Major Review: Intermittent exotropia: Basic and divergence excess type. Bin Vis Eye Muscle Surg 1993;8(3):185-216.

Crone RA.  Diplopia.  New York: American Elsevier Publishing, 1973.

 Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV, Stark L. Saccadic intrusions in strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97:1673-9.

Dale RT. Fundamentals of ocular motility and strabismus. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1982.  

Daum KM. Equal exodeviations: Characteristics and results of treatment with orthoptics. Aust J Optom 1984; 67(2):53-9.

Day SH, Norcia AM. Infantile esotropia and the developing visual system. In: Greenwald MJ, eds. Pediatric ophthalmology clinics of North America. Philadelphia: WE Saunders, 1990;3:281-7. 

Duke-Elder S, Wybar K. Ocular motility and strabismus.  In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of ophthalmology.  Vol. 6.  St. Louis: Mosby, 1973.

Etting G. Strabismus therapy in private practice: Cure rates after three months of therapy. J Am Optom Assoc 1978; 49:1367-73.  

Flax N. The optometric treatment of intermittent divergent strabismus. Proceedings from the Eastern Seaboard V.T. Conference, Washington, DC, 1963, pp. 52-57.

Flax N, Duckman RH. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1353-61.

Fletcher CF, Silverman SJ. Strabismus. Part I. A summary of 1110 consecutive cases. Am J Ophthalmol 1966;61:86-94.

Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan, MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990. 

Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In: Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Clinton, 1963:197-228.  

Flax N. Strabismus diagnosis and prognosis. In: Schor C, Ciuffreda KF, eds. Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butrerworths, 1983:579-95.  

Flynn JT. Strabismus: A neurodevelopmental approach: Nature's experiment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.

Forrest EB. Treating infant esotropia: A case report. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1978;55 :463-465.

Frantz KA. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess. J Am Optom Assoc 1990; 61(6):457-62.

Garriott RS, Heyman CL, Rouse MW. Case Report: Role of optometric vision therapy for surgically treated strabismus patients. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74(4):179-84.

Getz DJ. Strabismus and amblyopia. 2nd ed. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990. 

Gillan RU. An analysis of one hundred cases of strabismus treated orthoptically. Br J Ophthalmol 1945;29:420-8. 

 

Gnibor GP. Practical details in the orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1934;12:887-901. 

Goldrich SG. Optometric therapy of divergence excess strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:7-14.

Graham PA. Epidemiology of strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:224-31.

Greenwald I. Effective strabismus therapy. Duncan: Optometric Extension Program, 1979. 

Gillie JC, Lindsay J. Orthoptics: a discussion of binocular anomalies. London: The Hatton Press Ltd., 1969.

Griffin JR. Binocular anomalies: procedures for vision therapy. 2nd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1982.

Hoffman L, Cohen AH, Feuer G, et al. Effectiveness of optometric therapy for strabismus in a private practice. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1970;47:990-5.  

Kertesz AE, Kertesz J. Wide-field stimulation in strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:217-22.  

Krumholtz I, FitzGerald DE. Outcome indicators in a strabismic sample treated by vision therapy. J Behav Optom 1999; 10(6):143-6.

Ludlam W. Management of infantile strabismus: research issues and standards of care. J Optom Vis Devel 1993:24:8-14.

Ludlam WM. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1961;38:369-88. 

Ludlam WM, Kleinman BI. The long range results of orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1965;42:647-84.

McGraw LG. Guiding strabismus therapy.  Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1991.

Parks M. Oculomotility and strabismus. In: Duane TD,ed. Clinical ophthalmology. Hagerstown, MD: Harper & Row, 1979:1.

Pickwell D. Binocular vision anomalies. London: Butterworths, 1984. 

Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide.  New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.

Press LJ. Challenging the Adaption. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.  

Press LJ. Topical review: strabismus. J Optom Vis Devel 1991;22:5-20.

Press LJ. Amblyopia and Strabismus.  In: Press LJ, Moore BD, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry.  Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.  

Sanfilippo S, Clahane AC. The effectiveness of orthoptics alone in selected cases of exodeviation: the immediate results and several years later. Am OrthoptJ 1970;20:104-17.  

Selenow A, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986; 57(2):132-40.

Stark L, Ciuffreda KJ, Grisham D, Kenyon RV, Kiu J, Polse K. Accommodative dysfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1984;4:233-244

Von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility: theory and management of strabismus. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 1990.

Von Noorden GK. A reassessment of infantile esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105:1-10.

Von Noorden GK, Helveston EM. Strabismus: a Decision Making Approach. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994.

Wick B. Visual therapy for small angle esotropia. Am J Optom PhysiolOpt 1974;51:490-6.  

Wick B et al. Characteristics and prevalence of exotropia in clinic populations. Poster Program, American Academy of Optometry, Nashville, TN 1990.

Ziegler D, Huff D, Rouse MW. Success in strabismus therapy: a literature review. J Am Optom Assoc 1982;53:979-83.

Return to Top

 

Convergence Dysfunctions (Eye Teaming Disorders)

Alpern N, Kincaid WM, Lubeck MJ. Vergence and accommodation: ill. Proposed definitions of the AC/A ratios. Am J Ophthalmol 1959;48:141-8.  

Birnbaum MH. Automaticity in fusional vergence therapy. J Am Optom Assoc, 1995;66(8):471-478.

Birnbaum MH. Optometric management of nearpoint vision disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.

Birnbaum MH, Soden R, Cohen AH. Efficacy of vision therapy for convergence insufficiency in an adult male population. J Am Optom Assoc 1999; 70(4):225-32.

Birnbaum P, Birnbaum MH. Binocular coordination as a factor in reading achievement. J Am Optom Assoc 1968;39:48-56.

Burian HM, Von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility, 3rd ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby, 1985.  

Buzzelli A.  Vergence facility: developmental trends in a school age population.  Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:351-5.

Ciuffreda KJ. Components of clinical near vergence testing. J BehavOptom 1992;3:3-13. 

Clark B. Additional data on binocular imbalance and reading. J Educ Psych 1936;27:530-38.

Cohn AH, Soden R. Effectiveness of visual therapy for convergence insufficiencies for an adult population. J Am Optom Assoc 1984;55:491-494.

Cooper J. Review of computerized orthoptics with specific regard to convergence insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988;65:455-63.

Cooper J, Duckman R. Convergence insufficiency: incidence, diagnosis, and treatment. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:673-80. 

Cooper J, Feldman J. Operant conditioning of fusional convergence ranges using random dot stereograms. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:205-13.

Cooper J, Selenow A, Ciuffreda KJ, et al. Reduction of asthenopia in patients with convergence insufficiency after fusional vergence training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1983;60:982-9. 

Capobianco M.  The subjective measurement of the near point of convergence and its significance in the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. Am Orthoptics J. 1952;2:40-42.

Dalziel CC.  Effect of vision training on patients who fail Sheard’s criterion. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1981;58:21-1223.

Daum KM. The course and effect of visual training on the vergence system. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1982;59: 223-7.

Daum KM. Convergence insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984;61:16-22.

Daum KM. Classification criterion for success in the treatment of convergence insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984; 61: 10- 5.

Daum KM. A comparison of the results of tonic and phasic training on the vergence system. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1983;60:769-75.

Davis CE. Orthoptics treatment in convergence insufficiency.  J Can Med Assoc. 1956;55:47-49.

Delgadillo HM, Griffin JR. Vergence facility and associated symptoms. J Behav Optom 1992;3:91-4.

The efficacy of optometric vision therapy. 1986/87 AOA Future of Visual Development/Performance Task Force.  J Am Optom Assoc 1988;59:95-105.

Ficarra AP, Berman J, Rosenfield M, Portello JK. Vision training: predictive factors for success in visual therapy for patients with convergence excess. J Optom Vis Dev 1996; 27:213-9.

Flom MC.  Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision.  IN: Hirsh MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of Children.  Philadelphia: Clinton, 1963.  

Fowler MS. Binocular control in dyslexics. In: Stein JF; ed. Vision and visual dyslexia. Boston: CRC Press, 1991;141-6.  

France LW. The role of orthoptic therapy in exodeviations: a basis for orthoptic referral. Am Orthoptic J 1992,Oct:42(1):52-64.

Gallaway M, Scheiman M. The efficacy of vision therapy for convergence excess. J Am Optom Assoc 1997; 68(2):81-6.

Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. Binocular accommodative and vergence facility and predictive analysis of global stereopsis.  J Behav Optom 1991;2:3-6.

Griffin JR. Binocular anomalies: procedures for vision therapy. 2nd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1982.

Griffin JR. Efficacy of vision therapy for non-strabismic vergence anomalies.  Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:11-14.

Griffin JR. Ranges in vergence testing. Optom Monthly 1981;72:30-1.

Grisham J. The dynamics of fusional vergence eye movements in binocular dysfunction.  Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:645-55.  

Grisham J. Treatment of binocular dysfunction. In: Schor C, Ciuffreda KJ, eds. Vergence eye movements. Boston: Butter- worths, 1983:605-46.

Grisham JD. Visual therapy results for convergence insufficiency: a literature review. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988;65:448-54.

Grisham JD, Bowman MC, Owyang LA, et al.  Vergence orthoptics: Validity and persistence of the training effect.  Optom Vis Sci 1992: 68(6):441-451.

Gross, DA. Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity: A Manual of Clinical Analysis (2nd ed). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995.

Hikoda SC. General binocular dysfunctions in an urban optometry clinic. J Am Optom Assoc 1985;56:560-563.  

Hoffman L, Cohen A, Feuer G. Effectiveness of non-strabismic optometric vision training in a private practice.  Am J Optom & Arch Am Cad Opt, 1973;50:813-816.

Jackson TW, Goss DA.  Variation and correlation of standard clinical phoroptor tests of phorias, vergence ranges, and relative accommodation in a sample of school-age children.  J Am Optom Assoc 1991;62:540.

Kent PR, Steeve JH.  Convergence insufficiency: Incidence among military personnel and relief by orthoptics methods.  Milit Surgeon 1953:112:202-205.  

Koslowe KC. Binocular vision, coding tests and classroom achievement. J Behav Optom 1991;2(1):16-19.

Mohindra I, Molinari J.  Convergence insufficiency:  Its diagnosis and management--Part 1.  Optometric Monthly.  1980;71:(3):38-43.

Mohindra I, Molinari J.  Convergence insufficiency:  Its diagnosis and management--Part 2.  Optometric Monthly.  1980;71:(4):222-25.

Mohindra I, Molinari J.  Convergence insufficiency:  Its diagnosis and management--Part 3.  Optometric Monthly.  1980;71:(5):310-13.

Norse MS. Convergence insufficiency:  Incidence in opthalmic practice.  Results of Orthoptics treatment. Acta Ophthalmol(Kbl)1966;44:132-38.

Pantano FM. Orthoptic treatment of convergence insufficiency: A two-year follow-up report. Am Orthopt J 1982; 32:73-80.

Pickwell LD. Binocular Vision Anomalies: Investigation and Treatment, 2nd ed. London: Butterworth, 1989.

Pickwell LD, Dorth, Stephens LC.  Inadequate convergence.  Brit J Physiol Optics 1975;30:34-37.

Pickwell LD, Hampshire R. The significance of inadequate convergence.  Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1981;1:13-18.

Prakash P, Agarwal L, Nag S. Accommodational weakness and convergence insufficiency.  Orient Arch Ophthalmol 1972;10:261-4.

Press LJ. Accommodative and Vergence Disorders: Restoring Balance to a Distressed System. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.  

Richman JE, Cohen E. Rehabilitation techniques for binocular dysfunction. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania College of Optometry, 1975.

Rouse MW: Optometric assessment of visual efficiency problems. In: Scheiman MM, Rouse MW, eds. Optometric management of learning-related vision problems. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994.

Schor CM. Models of mutual interactions between accommodation and convergence. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1985;62:369-74. 

Schor CM, Ciuffreda KJ , eds. Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butterworth, 1983.

Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994. 

Shippman S, Infantino J, Cimbol D, Cohen KR, Weseley AC. Convergence insufficiency with normal parameters. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1983;20:158-61.  

Stein JF, Riddell P, Fowler MS. Disordered vergence movement control in dyslexic children. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72:162-6.

Stein JF. Riddell P, Fowler MS. Fine binocular control in dyslexic children. Eye 1987; 1:433-8.

Suchoff IB, Petito GT.  The efficacy of visual therapy: accommodative disorders and non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision.  J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:119-25.

Tait EF. Accommodative convergence.  Am J Ophthalmol 1951;34:1093-1107.

Thorn F, Gwiazda J, Cruz AAV; Bauer JA, Held R. The development of eye alignment, convergence, and sensory binocularity in young infants. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35:544-53.

Vaegan JL. Convergence and divergence show longer and sustained improvement after short isometric exercise. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1979;56:23-33.

Vaegan JL, McMonnies C. Clinical vergence training. Aust J Optom 1979;62:28-36.

Vaegan JL. Convergence and divergence show large and sustained improvement after short isometric exercise. Am J Op- tom Physiol Opt 1979;56:23-33.

Wick B. Vision therapy for nonstrabismic patients.  Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1977;54:244-47.

Wold RM, Pierce JR, Keddington J. Effectiveness of optometric vision therapy.  J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1047-59.  

Return to Top

 

Accommodation Disorders (Focusing)

Allen MJ. Accommodative rock via computer.  J Am Optom Assoc 1988,Aug;59(8):610-13.

Bennett GR, Blondin M, Ruskiewicz J. Incidence and prevalence of selected visual conditions. J Am Optom Assoc 1982;53:647-656.

Bobier WR, Sivak JG. Orthoptic treatment of subjects showing slow accommodative responses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1983;60:678-87. 

Cooper J. Accommodative dysfunction. In: Amos JF (ed). Diagnosis and Management in Vision Care. Boston: Butterworth, 1987:431-454.  

Cooper J, et al. Reduction of asthenopia after accommodative facility training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:430-6.

Cornsweet TN, Crane H. Training the visual accommodative system. Vision Res 1973;13:713-5. 

Daum K. Accommodative dysfunction. Doc Ophthalmol 1983 55:177-98.

Daum K. Accommodative insufficiency. Am J Optom Physio Opt 1983;60:352-9.

Daum K. Orthoptic treatment in patients with inertia of accommodation. Aust J Optom 1983;66:68-72.

Daum K. Predicting results in the orthoptic treatment o accommodative dysfunction. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984 61:184-9. 

Duand A. Anomalies of accommodation clinically considered. Trans Am Opthalmol Soc 1915;1:386-400.

Flax N. Accommodation with asymmetric convergence. J Op- tom Vis Dev 1992;22:3-8. 

Garzia R, Richman J. Accommodative facility: A study of young adults. J Am Optom Assoc 1982;53:821-4.

Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. A study of binocular accommodative and vergence facility and predictive analysis of global stereopsis. J Behav Optom 1991;2(1):3-6.

Grisham JD. A short program for accommodative insufficiency. Rev Optom 1978,May;115(5):35.

Haynes HM, McWilliams LG. Effects of training on near-far response time as measured by the distance rock test. J Am Optom Assoc 1979;50:715-8.

Hennessey D, Iosue R, Rouse M. Relation of symptoms to accommodative infacility of school-aged children. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984;61:177. 

Hoffman LG. The effect of accommodative deficiencies on the developmental level of perceptual skills. Am J Optorn Physiol Opt 1982;59:254-62.  

Hung GK, Ciuffreda KJ, Semmlow JL. Static vergence and accommodation: population norms and orthoptic effects. Doc Ophthalmol1 986;62:165-79.

Levine S, Ciuffreda KJ, Selenow A, et al. Clinical assessment of accommodative facility in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. J Am Optom Assoc 1985;56:286-90. 

Liu JS, Lee M, Jang J, et al. Objective assessment of accommodation orthoptics: 1. dynamic insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1979;56:285-91.

London R. Accommodation. In: Barresi BJ (ed). Ocular Assessment: The Manual of Diagnosis for Office Practice. Boston: Butterworth, 1984:123-130.

Marg E. An investigation of voluntary as distinguished from reflex accommodation. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad of Optom 1951;28:347-56.  

Mazow ML, France TD, Finkleman S, et al. Acute accomodative and convergence insufficiency. Tr Am Ophthalmol Soc 1989; 87:158-73.

Pierce J, Greenspan S. Accommodative rock procedures in vision training, a clinical guide. Optom Wkly 1971;62(33):754-7.

Pierce J, Greenspan S. Accommodative rock procedures in vision training, a clinical guide. Optom Wkly 1971; 62(34):776-80. 

Prakash P, Agarwal L, Nag S. Accommodational weakness and convergence insufficiency. Orient Arch Ophthalmol 1972; 10:261-4.

Press LJ. Accommodative and Vergence Disorders: Restoring Balance to a Distressed System. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.  

Press LJ. Do plus lenses work? Pediatr Optom Vis Ther 1991;1:7-9. 

Press LJ. Physiological effects of plus lens application. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1985;62:392-7.

Provine R, Enoch J. On voluntary ocular accommodation. Percept Psychophys 1975;17:209-12.

Randall R. Volitional control of visual accommodation. In: Conf Proceedings, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1970;82:15-7.  

Rouse MW. Management of binocular anomalies: Efficacy of vision therapy in the treatment of Accommodative deficiencies. Am J Optom Opt 1987;64:415-420.

Rouse MW, Hutter RF, Shiflett R. A normative study of the accommodative lag in elementary schoolchildren. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984;61:693-697.

Russell GE, Wick B. A prospective study of treatment of accommodative insufficiency. Opt Vis Sci 1993; 70(2):131-5.

Scheiman M, Herzberg H, Frantz K, Margolies M. Normative Study of accommodative facility in elementary school children. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988;65:127-134

Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994. 

Stark L, Ciuffreda KJ, Grisham D, Kenyon RV, Kiu J, Polse K. Accommodative dysfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1984;4:233-244

Stark L, Ciuffreda KJ, Grisham D, Kenyon RV, Kiu J, Polse K. Accommodative dysfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1984;4:233-244

Suchoff IB, Petito TG. The efficacy of visual therapy: accommodative disorders and non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:119-25.

Von Noorden G, Brown D, Parks M. Associated convergence and accommodative insufficiency. Doc Ophthalmol 1973; 34:393-403.  

Wick B, Hall P. Relation among accommodative facility, lag, and amplitude in elementary school children. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:593-598

Weisz CL. Clinical therapy for accommodative responses: transfer effects upon performance. J Am Optorn Assoc 1980;50:209-15.

Weisz CL. How to find and treat accommodative disorders. Rev. Optom 1983;120:48-54.

Zellers JA, Alpert TL, Rouse MW. A review of the literature and a normative study of accommodative facility. J Am Optom Assoc 1984;55:31-7.

Return to Top

 

Oculomotor Deficiencies (Tracking)

Adler-Grinberg D, Stark L. Eye movements, scan paths and dyslexia. Am} Optom Physiol Opt 1978;55:557-70.

Bala SP, Cohen B, Morris AG, et al. Saccades of hyperactive and normal boys during ocular pursuits. Dev Med Chill NeuroI 1981;23:323-36.  

Black JL, Collins DWK, De Roach JN, Zubrick Sr. Dyslexia: A detailed study of sequential eye movements for normal and poor reading children. Percept Motor Skills 1984;59:423-434.

Burian H, von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1974:181-211.  

Ciufredda KJ, Bahill AT, Kenyon RV, et al. Eye movements during reading: case reports. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1976; 53:389-95.

Ciuffreda KJ, Tannen B. Eye movement basics for the clinician. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994.

Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Abnormal saccadic substitution during small amplitude pursuit tracking in amblyopic eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979;18:506-16.

Dell'osso LF; Daroff RE. Eye movement characteristics and recording techniques. In: Duane TD, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's clinical ophthalmology, vol 2, no 9. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1988. 

Dendy HM, Shaterian ET. Practical ocular motility. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas, 1967.  

Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. Vision function and reading disability: an optometric viewpoint. J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:88-96.

Garzia RP, Peck CK. Vision and reading II: eye movements. J Optom Vis Dev 1994;25 :4- 37 .

Garzia RP, Richman JE, Nicholson SB, et al. A new visual-verbal saccade test: the developmental eye movement test (DEM).J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:124-35.

Gilbert LC. Functional motor efficiency of the eye and its relation to reading. Univ of Calif Press, Publications in Education, 1953;11:159-232.

Goldrich SG, Sedgwick H. An objective comparison of oculomotor functioning in reading disabled and normal children. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 1982;59:82P.

Griffin DC. Saccades as related to reading disorders. J Learn Disab 1974;7:50-58.  

Griffin JR. Pursuit fixations: An overview of training procedures. Optom Monthly 1976;67:35-38.

Griffin JR. Saccadic eye movements-- Recommended testing and training procedures. Optom Monthly July 1981;72:27-28.

Hainline L. Normal lifespan: developmental changes in saccadic and pursuit eye movements. In: Johnston CW, Pirozzolo FJ , eds.

Helsen L, Maples WC. The optometric evaluation of adult females who are participating in a remedial reading program. J BehavOptom 1994;5:87-92.

Higgins JD. Oculomotor System. In: Barresi B (ed) Ocular Assessment. Boston:Butterworth, 1984:201-208.

Jones A, Stark L. Abnormal Patterns of normal eye movements in specific dyslexia. In: Rayner K (ed.) Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:481-498.

King AT, Devick S. The proposed King and Devick test and its relation to the Pierce saccade test and reading levels. Available from the Carel E. Shepherd Memorial Library. Illinois College of Optometry, Chicago: 1976.  

Kulp MT, Schmidt PP. Effect of oculomotor and other visual skills on reading performance: a literature review. Optom Vis Sci 1996;73(4):283-92.

Lefton LA. Eye movements in reading disabled children. In: Senders JW; Fisher DF, Monty RA, eds. Eye movements and higher psychological functions. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1978:225-37.

Lehrnkuhle S, Garzia RP, Turner L, Hash T, Baro JA. A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability. N Engl J Med 1993;328:989-96.

Leigh JR, Zee DS. The diagnostic value of abnormal eye movements. A pathophysiological approach. ]ohns Hopkins Med J 1982;151:122-35.

Leigh RJ , Zee DS. The neurology of eye movements. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 1991.

Maples WC. The NSUCO oculomotor test.  Santa Ana, California, Optometric Extension Program Foundation, 1995.

Maples WC, Atchley J, Ficklin T. Northeastern State University College of Optometry's oculomotor norms. J Behav Optom 1992;3:143-50.

Maples WC, Ficklin T. Comparison of eye movement skills between above and below average readers. J Behav Optom 1990;1:87-91. 

Maples WC, Ficklin T. Interrater and test-retest reliability of pursuits and saccades. J Am Optom Assoc 1988:59:549-52.

Maples WC, Ficklin T. A preliminary study of the oculomotor skills of learning-disabled, gifted and normal children. J Optom Vis Dev 1989;20:9-14. 

Maples, WC, Ficklin T. Test-retest reliability of the King- Devick saccade test and the NSUCO ocularmotor tests. J Behav Optom (Australia) 1991;3:209-14.  

McLaughlin SC. Parametric adjustment in saccadic eye movements. Percept Psychophys 1967;2:359-362.

Olsen RK, Kliegl R, Davidson BJ. Dyslexic and normal readers eye movements. J Exp Psych (Hum Percept) 1983;816-825.

Optican LM. Adaptive properties of the saccadic system. In: Berthoz A, Melvill Jones G. (eds.) Adaptive Mechanisms in Gaze Control, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1985:71-79.

Oride MKH, Marutani JK, Rouse MW; et al. Reliability study of the Pierce and King-Devick saccade tests. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1986;65:419-24. 

Palidis GT. Eye movements in dyslexia: Diagnostic significance. J Learn Disabil 1985;18:42.

Pavlidis GT. Eye movement differences between dyslexics, normal, and retarded readers while sequentially fixating digits. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 1985;62:820-832.

Pavlidis GT. Eye movements in dyslexia: Their diagnostic significance.  J Learn Disabil 1985;18:42-50.

Pirozzolo FJ. Eye movements and reading disability. In: Rayner K, ed. Eye movements in reading: perceptual and  language processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:499-509.

Pollatsek A. What can eye movements tell us about dyslexia? In: Rayner K, ed. Eye movements in reading: perceptual and language processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:511-21.

Poynter HL, Schor C, Haynes HM, et al. Oculomotor functions in reading disability. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1982; 59:116-27.

Press LJ. Oculomotor Dysfunctions: Classification of Saccadic and Pursuit Deficiencies. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.    

Punnett AF. Relationship between reinforcement and eye movements during vision therapy with dyslexic children. PhD thesis. Ann Arbor: University of Microfilms, 1981:24.

Punnett AF, Steinhauer GD. Relationship between reinforcement and eye movements during ocular motor training with learning disabled children. J Learn Disabil 1984; 17: 16-9.

Rayner K. Eye movements in reading and information processing. Psychol Bull 1978:85:618-60.

Richman JE, Walker AJ, Garzia RP. The impact of automatic digit naming ability on a clinical test of eye movement functioning. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54:616-22.  

Rounds BB, Manley CW, Norris RH. The effect of oculomotor training on reading efficiency. J Am Optom Assoc 1991;62:92-99.  

Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994.  

Schor C. A directional impairment of eye movement control in strabismus amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1975; 15:692-7. 

Senders JW, Fisher DF, Monty RA, eds. Eye movements: cognition and visual perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1981 .

Senders JW, Fisher DF, Monty RA, eds. Eye movements and higher psychological functions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1978.

Sheedy JE, Saladin JJ. Association of symptoms with measures of oculomotor deficiencies. Am J Otpom Physiol Opt 1978;55:670-6.  

Sohrab-Jam G. Eye movement patterns and reading performance in poor readers: Immediate effects of convex lenses indicated by book retinoscopy. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 1976;53:720-726.

Solan HA. Eye movement problems in achieving readers: An update. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1985;62:812-819.

Solan HA. The improvement of reading efficiency: A study of sixty three achieving high school students. In: Solan HA (ed) The Psychology of Learning and Reading Difficulties. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973:363-370.

Stanley G, Smith GA, Howell EA. Eye movements and sequential tracking in dyslexic and control children. Brit J Psych 1983;74:181-187.

Vissius G. Adaptive control of saccadic eye movements. Bibl Ophthalmol 1972;82:244-250.

Young BS, Pollard T, Paynter S, Cox R. Effect of eye exercises in improving control of eye movements during reading. J Optom Vis Dev 1982;13:4-7.

 

Von Noorden GK. Burian-Von Noorden's binocular vision and ocular motility. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1980: 219-49.

Von Noorden GK. Mackensen G. Pursuit movements of normal and amblyoptic eyes - an electromyographic study. II. Pursuit movements of amblyopic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 1962;53:477-87. 

Zangwill OL, Blakemore C. Dyslexia: Reversal of eye movements during reading. Neuropsychologica 1972;10:371-373.  

Zee DS, Optician LM. Studies of adaption in human oculomotor disorders. In: Berthoz A, Melvill Jones G. (eds) Adaptive Mechanisms in Gaze Control. Amsterdam:Elsevier Science Publishers, 1985: 165-176.

Return to Top

 

Visual Perception and Information Processing

Barber A, ed. Vision therapy: training laterality and directionality. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1994.

Borsting E. Overview of visual and visual processing development. In: Scheiman MW, Rouse MW, eds. Optometric management of learning-related vision problems, St. Louis: Mosby, 1994:31-68.

Borsting E. Visual perception and reading. In: Garzia R, ed. Vision and reading. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:149-73.

Forrest EB. Visual imagery: An optometric approach. OEP Foundation, Santa Ana, CA, 1981.

Getman GN. Smart in everything except school. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1992:44-60.

Getman GN. The visuomotor complex in the acquisition of learning skills. In: Hellmuth J, ed. Learning disorders; vol 1. Seattle, Washington: Special Child Publications, 1965 :49- 76. 

Griffin JR, Birch TF, Bateman GF, DeLand PN. Dyslexia and visual perception: is there a relation? Optom Vis Sci, 1993;70:374-79.

Griffin JR, Walton HN. Therapy in dyslexia and reading problems including vision, perception and motor skills. Los Angeles, California: I-Med, 1985.

Grisham D, Simmons H. Perspectives on reading disabilities. In: Rosenbloorn AA, Morgan MW, eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990: 518-59.

Groffrnan S. Optometric utilization of objective, standardized perceptual tests. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1971;48:825-33.

Groffman S, Press LJ. Computerized visual perceptual therapy programs. Part II. In: Press LJ, ed. Computers and vision therapy programs. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1992:27-32. 

Groffman S, Solan HA. Developmental and perceptual assessment of learning-disabled children: theoretical concepts and diagnostic testing. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1994. 

Hoffman LG. Incidence of vision difficulties in children with learning disabilities. J Am Optom Assoc 1980;51:447-51.

Hoffman LG. The effect of accommodative deficiencies on the developmental level of perceptual skills. Am J Optorn Physiol Opt 1982;59:254-62.

Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 1. Optom Monthly 1979;70(2):78-81.

Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 2. Optom Monthly 1979;70(3):77-82.

Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 3. Optom Monthly 1979; 70(4): 70-77. 

Hoffman LG, Rouse, MW. Referral recommendations for binocular function and/or developmental perceptual deficiencies. J Am Optom Assoc 1980;51:119-26.

Lane KA. Reversal errors: theories and therapy procedures. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1988.

Larsen SC, Hammill DD. The relationship of selected visual perceptual abilities to school learning. J Special Educ 1975;9:281-291.

Locher PJ, Worms PP. Visual scanning strategies of neurologically impaired, perceptually impaired, and normal children viewing the Bender-Gestalt drawings. Psychol in the Schools 1977;14:147-57.

Locher PJ, Worms PF. Visual scanning strategies of perceptually impaired and normal children viewing the motor-free visual perception test. J Learn DisabiI1981;14:416-9.

McMonnies CW: A practical guide for remedial approaches to left/right confusion and reversals. Glenbrook, New South Wales, Australia: Australian College of Behavioral Optometrists, 1991.

Mozlin R. The use of behavioral parameters for a visual perceptual evaluation. J Behav Optorn 1995;6: 115-8.

Press LJ. Developmental Visual Information-Processing Disorders: Common Threads in Perception. In: Press LJ, Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.     

Rayner K Eye movements in reading and information processing. Psychol Bull 1978:85:618-60.

Rosner J. The development of a perceptual skills curriculum. J Am Optom Assoc 1979;44:698-707.

Rosner J. Criterion referenced testing of visual-motor development: the visual analysis test. In: Greenstein TN, ed. Vision and learning disability. St. Louis: American Optometric Association, 1979;159-77.

Rosner J. Helping children overcome learning difficulties. 3rd ed. New York: Walker & Company, 1993:189-272.

Rouse MW; Borsting E. Management of visual information .processing problems. In: Scheiman MM, Rouse Mw; eds. Optometric management of learning-related vision problems. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994.

Scheiman MM, Gallaway M. Visual information processing: assessment and diagnosis. In: Scheiman MM, Rouse MW; eds. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994. 

Solan HA. Learning disabilities. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan Mw; eds. Princples and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990:503.

Solan HA, Ciner EB. "Visual Perception and Learning: Issues and Answers", Journal of the American Optometric Association, Vol. 60, No. 6, June 1989, pp. 457-460.

Solan HA, Ficarra AP.  A study of perceptual and verbal skills of disabled readers in grades 4, 5, and 6.  J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:628-34.

Solan HA, Suchoff IB. Tests and measurements for behavioral optometrists. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program Foundation, 1991. 

Stein JF; Fowler MS. Effect of monocular occlusion on visuomotor perception and reading in dyslexic children. Lancet 1985;11:69-73.

Suchoff IB. Visual-spatial development in the child: an optometric theoretical and clinical approach. New York: State University of New York Press, 1975. 

Vincett WK. Optometric perceptual testing and training manual. 2nd ed. Akron, Ohio: PerCon, 1975:167-96.  

Zelniker, Oppenheimer L. Modification of information processing of impulsive children. Child Dev 1973;44:445-50.

Return to Top

 

Reading, Learning, and School Performance

American Foundation for Vision Awareness, "Children's vision and literacy campaign position paper", St. Louis: AFVA, 1993, p. 4.

Atzmon D, Nemet P, Ishay A, Karni E. A randomized prospective masked and matched comparative study of orthoptic treatment versus conventional reading tutoring treatment for reading disabilities in 62 children. Binoc Vis 1993;8(2):91-103.

Birnbaum MH. Vision disorders frequently interfere with reading and learning. J Behav Optom 1993;4(3): 66,69-71.

Birnbaum P, Birnbaum MH. Binocular coordination as a factor in reading achievement. J Am Optom Assoc 1968;39:48-56.

Borsting E. Measures of visual attention in children with and without visual efficiency problems. J Hehav Optom 1991;2:151-6.

Borsting E. Visual perception and reading. In: Garzia R, ed. Vision and reading. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:149-73.

Busby RA. Vision development in the classroom. J Learn DisabiI 1985;18:266-72.  

Christenson GN, Griffin JR, Wesson MD. Optometry's role in reading disabilities: Resolving the controversy. J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:363-72.

Clark B. Additional data on binocular imbalance and reading. J Educ Psych 1936;27:530-38.

Ciufredda KJ, Bahill AT, Kenyon RV, et al. Eye movements during reading: case reports. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1976; 53:389-95.  

Does Your Child Have a Learning-Related Vision Problem?, Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.: Santa Ana, 1995.

Egger MA, Clay OK, Dunning DP, et al. The effects of vision on learning and school performance. Oregon Optometric Association, 1992.

Flax N. The contribution of visual problems to learning disability. J Am Optom Assoc 1970;41:841-45.

Flax N. Problems in relating visual function to reading disorder. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1970;47:366-372.  

Forrest E. Functional vision and its impact on learning. J Optom Vis Dev 1982;13(2):12-15.

Garzia R. "The Relationship Between Visual Efficiency Problems and Learning", In: Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems, Scheiman MN, Rouse MW, St. Louis: Mosby, 1994, pp. 153-175.

Garzia R, ed. Vision and reading. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:57-58.

Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. Vision function and reading disability: an optometric viewpoint. J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:88-96.

Garzia RP, Peck CK. Vision and reading II: eye movements. J Optom Vis Dev 1994;25 :4- 37 .  

Getman GN. Smart in everything except school. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1992:44-60.

Getman GN. The visuomotor complex in the acquisition of learning skills. In: Hellmuth J, ed. Learning disorders; vol 1. Seattle, Washington: Special Child Publications, 1965 :49- 76.  

Getz D. Learning enhancement through vision therapy. Acad Therapy 1980;15(4):457-466.  

Gottfried AW, Gilman G. "Visual skills and intellectual development: A relationship in young children", J Am Optom Assoc. Vol. 56, No. 7, July 1985, p. 554 

Griffin DC. Saccades as related to reading disorders. J Learn Disab 1974;7:50-58.  

Griffin JR, Walton HN. Therapy in dyslexia and reading problems including vision, perception and motor skills. Los Angeles, California: I-Med, 1985.  

Griffin JR, Christenson GN, et al. Optometric Management of Reading Dysfunction. Newton: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.

Grisham D, Simons H. Perspectives on reading disabilities. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW (eds) Principles and Practice of Pediatric Optometry. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 518-559.  

Hammer LR, Shimada LM, Hoffman LG. Teacher awareness of the role of vision therapy in the child with learning problems. J Optom Vis Dev 1988;19(3):6-12.

Heath, EJ, et al. Eye exercises and reading efficiency. Academic Therapy 1976;11:435-45.

Helveston EM, Weber JC, Miller K, et al. Visual function and academic performance. Am J Ophthalmol 1985; 99:346-55.

Hoffman LG. Incidence of vision difficulties in children with learning disabilities. J Am Optom Assoc 1980;51:447-51.

Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 1. Optom Monthly 1979;70(2):78-81.

Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 2. Optom Monthly 1979;70(3):77-82.

Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 3. Optom Monthly 1979; 70(4): 70-77. 

Hoffman LG. "The Role of the Optometrist in the Diagnosis and Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems", In: Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems, Scheiman MM, Rouse MW, St. Louis: Mosby, 1994, p. 218.

Jones A, Stark L. Abnormal Patterns of normal eye movements in specific dyslexia. In: Rayner K (ed.) Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:481-498.  

Jones L. "A Clear Eyed View of Developmental Optometry", Heart of Homeschooling, Winter 1995, p. 6.

Kamien M. "When a Bright Child Has Trouble Reading", Optometric Extension Program Foundation: Santa Ana, 1995.  

Koslowe KC. Binocular vision, coding tests and classroom achievement. J Behav Optom 1991;2(1):16-19.  

Kulp MT, Schmidt PP. Effect of oculomotor and other visual skills on reading performance: a literature review. Optom Vis Sci 1996;73(4):283-92.

Larsen SC, Hammill DD. The relationship of selected visual perceptual abilities to school learning. J Special Educ 1975;9:281-291.

Lefton LA. Eye movements in reading disabled children. In: Senders JW; Fisher DF, Monty RA, eds. Eye movements and higher psychological functions. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1978:225-37.  

Lehrnkuhle S, Garzia RP, Turner L, Hash T, Baro JA. A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability. N EnglJ Med 1993;328:989-96.

Ludlam WM. Optometric visual training for reading disability--a case report. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 197: 50:58-66. 

Ludlam WM, Twarowski C, Ludlam DP. Optometric visual training for reading for reading disability-A case report. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1973;50:58-66.  

Maples WC, Ficklin T. Comparison of eye movement skills between above and below average readers. J Behav Optom 1990;1:87-91. 

Olsen RK, Kliegl R, Davidson BJ. Dyslexic and normal readers eye movements. J Exp Psych (Hum Percept) 1983;816-825.

Palidis GT. Eye movements in dyslexia: Diagnostic significance. J Learn Disabil 1985;18:42.

Pavlidis GT. Eye movement differences between dyslexics, normal, and retarded readers while sequentially fixating digits. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 1985;62:820-832.

Pavlidis GT. Eye movements in dyslexia: Their diagnostic significance.  J Learn Disabil 1985;18:42-50.

Pierce JR. Is there a relationship between vision therapy and academic achievement? Rev Optom 1977;114:48-63.  

Pirozzolo FJ. Eye movements and reading disability. In: Rayner K, ed. Eye movements in reading: perceptual and  language processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:499-509.

Pollatsek A. What can eye movements tell us about dyslexia? In: Rayner K, ed. Eye movements in reading: perceptual and language processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:511-21.

Poynter HL, Schor C, Haynes HM, et al. Oculomotor functions in reading disability. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1982; 59:116-27.  

Punnett AF. Relationship between reinforcement and eye movements during vision therapy with dyslexic children. PhD thesis. Ann Arbor: University of Microfilms, 1981:24.

Punnett AF, Steinhauer GD. Relationship between reinforcement and eye movements during ocular motor training with learning disabled children. J Learn Disabil 1984; 17: 16-9.

Rayner K. Eye movements in reading and information processing. Psychol Bull 1978:85:618-60.  

Richman JE. Use of a sustained visual attention task to determine children at risk for learning problems. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:20-6.

Rosner J. Helping children overcome learning difficulties. 3rd ed. New York: Walker & Company, 1993:189-272.  

Rounds BB, Manley CW, Norris RH. The effect of oculomotor training on reading efficiency. J Am Optom Assoc 1991;62:92-99.  

Scheiman MM, Rouse Mw; eds. Optometric management of learning-related vision problems. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994.

Seiderman AS. Optometric vision therapy-results of a demonstration project with a learning-disabled population. J Am Optom Assoc 1980;51(5):489-93.

Sherman A. Relating vision disorders to learning disability. J Am Optom Assoc 1973;44:140-41.

Solan HA, Press LJ. Optometry and learning disabilities. J Optom Vis Devel 1989;20:5-21.

Solan HA. The improvement of reading efficiency: A study of sixty three achieving high school students. In: Solan HA (ed) The Psychology of Learning and Reading Difficulties. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973:363-370.  

Solan HA. "Learning disabilities: the role of the developmental optometrist", J Am Optom Assoc. Vol. 50, No. 11, November 1979, p. 260.

Stanley G, Smith GA, Howell EA. Eye movements and sequential tracking in dyslexic and control children. Brit J Psych 1983;74:181-187.

Wheeler TA, McQuarrie CW. "Vision, Juvenile Delinquency and Learning Disabilities", paper presented at the National Academy of Practices by the authors in 1992.

Young BS, Collier-Gary K, Schwing S. Visual factors: a primary cause of failure in beginning reading. J Optom Vis Dev 1994;25(4):276-88.

Zangwill OL, Blakemore C. Dyslexia: Reversal of eye movements during reading. Neuropsychologica 1972;10:371-373.  

Return to Top

 

General Clinical References 

American Optometric Association. Position statement on vision therapy. J Am Optom Assoc 1985; 56(10):782-3.

Amos J (ed), Diagnosis and Management of Vision.  Boston: Butterworth, 1987.  

Bennett GR, Blondin M, Ruskiewicz J. Incidence and prevalence of selected visual conditions. J Optom Assoc 1982; 53:647-56.

Cotter SA. Clinical Uses of Prism. St. Louis: Mosby, 1995.

Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan, MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990. 

Gibson HW. Textbook of orthoptics. London: Hatton Press Ltd, 1955.

Gillman G. Behavioral Optometry. Quincy, CA: Paradox Publishing, 1988.

Griffin JR. Binocular Anomalies: Procedures for Vision Therapy, 3rd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1995.

Griffin JR. Erickson GB. Binocular vision problems. In: Alexander KL, ed. The Lippincott manual of primary eye care. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1995. 

Gross, DA. Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity: A Manual of Clinical Analysis (2nd ed). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995.

 

Jacques L. Corrective and preventive optometry. Los Angeles: Globe Print Co., 1950.

Kehl BE.  Visual Training and Laboratory Manual.  3rd ed. Memphis, TN: 1963.

Kernan M. Developmental visual training procedures. Optom Ext Prog, Assistant's Courses, 1987;29:21-23. 

Lancaster JE. A manual of orthoptics. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas, 1951.

 

Lieberman S, Cohen A, Stolzberg M, et al. Validation study of the New York State Optometric Association (NY-SOA) vision screening battery. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1985;62:165-8.

Lowery RW: Handbook of diagnostic tests for the developmental optometrist. Privately published, 1989. 

 

Ludlam WM. Visual training, the alpha activation cycle and reading. J Am Optom Assoc 1979;50: 111-5.

MacDonald LW. Visual training. Series 1-2. 1978-79, OEP Foundation, Santa Ana, CA.  

Maino DM. The process approach, microcomputers and therapy. Optom Ext Prog 1988;60:227-234.

Peachey GT. Minimum attention model for understanding the development of efficient visual function. J Behav Optom 1991;2: 199-206.

Pickwell LD. Binocular Vision Anomalies: Investigation and Treatment, 2nd ed. London: Butterworth, 1989.  

Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.

Press LJ. Computers and vision therapy programs. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1992 :2.

Press LJ, Moore BD, eds. Clinical Pediatric Optometry.  Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.

Richman JE, Cron MT, Cohen E. Basic Vision Therapy: A Clinical Handbook.  Big Rapids, MI: Ferris State Press, 1983.

Richman JE, Cron MT. Guide to Vision Therapy.  South Bend: Bernell Corp, 1989.  

Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Optometry.  Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990, Ch. 10-12.  

Rosner J. Vision Therapy in a Primary-care Practice.  New York: Professional Press Books, 1988.

Rutstein RP, Daum KM. Anomalies of Binocular Vision: Diagnosis and Management. St. Louis: Mosby, 1998

Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical Management of Binocular Vision.  Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994.

Schrock RE. Introduction to Visual Training.  Duncan, OK: Optometric Extension Program, 1966.

Scott CL. The vision development process. In: Barber A, ed.: Vision therapist: infant and toddler vision. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1993 ;34: 1-9. 

Smith W. Clinical orthoptic procedure: A reference book on clinical methods of orthoptics. St. Louis: Mosby, 1950.

Solan HA, Suchoff IB. Tests and measurements for behavioral optometrists. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program Foundation, 1991.

Swartwout JB. Optometric Vision Therapy Manual:  Procedures and Forms.  Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program, 1991.

Vodnoy BE. The Practice of Orthoptics and Related Topics. 7th ed. South Bend, IN: Bernell, 1979.  

Wiener H. Eyes OK I'm OK. San Rafael, Calif.: Academic Therapy Publications, 1975. 

Wold R, Getz DJ, McGraw L. In-office vision therapy manual. Los Angeles: A-V Scientific, 1975.

Wold RM, Pierce JR, Keddington J. Effectiveness of optometric vision therapy.  J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1047-59.  

Return to Top     

 
 

The Children's Vision Information Network was created to raise public awareness about potential vision problems in children.  This site is not intended as a substitute for a complete eye exam and professional advice from your family optometrist.  Parents, teachers, occupational therapists, psychologists, and related professionals have permission to copy and distribute information contained in the site for educational purposes only with the condition that each page is copied in its entirety with the URL included (www.ChildrensVision.com).  All publishing rights are reserved. Direct specific inquiries to Mary Barton, Director of Vision Therapy, at (316) 722-3740 or email VTDirector@ChildrensVision.com.